CONCEPTS IN SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION
- concepts-in-special-needs-education, MULTIPLE HANDICAPPED CHILD
A multiple – handicapped child is a child who suffers from more than one disability. This means it is possible for an individual to have more than one handicap. Examples of multiple handicapped children are those who are deaf and blind, cripple and blind, blind and mentally retarded and so on.
- EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN
According to Kirk and Gallagher (1986) an exceptional child is the one who deviates from the average or normal child in mental characteristics, sensory abilities, physical characteristics, social or emotional behavior, communication abilities and multiple handicaps to such an extent that he requires modification of schools practices in order to develop his potential. According to Heward (1999) exceptional children are children who experience difficulties in learning and those performance is so superior that special education is necessary to help fulfill their potentials.
Impairments means any loss or damage to a part or all of a body organs or systems. For example individuals who have difficulty of seeing or hearing are often described as people with visual and hearing impairments.
Impairments can be psychological, physical, sensory and intellectual. It can be temporary or permanent.
It refers to the loss or greatly reduced ability to perform a function or some functions due to damage or loss of a body part or organ. It is the impact or impairment upon the performance of some functions accepted as basic elements of everyday living eg. movement, communication i.e. skill in speaking.
- HANDICAP, concepts-in-special-needs-education
Handicap refers to the social, psychological and occupational disadvantages that result form impairment and disability. In other words, handicap has to do with difficulties that society or the environment imposes on the individual with disability or impairment that limits or prevent him from fulfilling a normal role. For example, a student who cannot write with a pen but can use a typewriter would be handicapped without such equipment. A person can also be handicapped without a disability eg. Financial handicap.
- MAINSTREAMING ,concepts-in-special-needs-education
According to Lewis and Doorlag (1995) mainstreaming is a temporal instructional and social integration in which exceptional children are provided with special education are related services while they attend regular classes and schools. Children are considered mainstreamed if they spend any part of the school day with regular class peers. Often, these exceptional children receive support from a special educator such as a resource teacher. For example, Wesley College of Education.
Inclusion is a term in special education in which exceptional children learn and interact together in the general classroom with their peers.
The concept means that every exceptional child regardless of the type and degree of his handicap should be provided with a living environment as close as possible to normal. This means all exceptional children should have access to resources of all kinds such as physical access to buildings vocational and instructional resources etc.
Labeling refers to the ways by which exceptional children are classified into various categories giving themnames such as mental retardation, hearing impairment, visual impairment, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, the gifted and talented, etc.