All you must know about communication disorders

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TYPES OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS

communication-disorders :Communication disorders are classified into two areas namely language disorders and speech disorders –

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(A) LANGUAGE DISORDERS

Language disorder is the inability of an individual to use the set of rules in language to produce meaningful messages. They are either expressive disorders or receptive disorders.

Expressive disorders deal with giving out information while receptive disorders are concerned with taking in information language disorder can manifest itself through the following.

  1. FORMS OF LANGUAGE DISORDER: communication-disorders

) PHONOLOGY – This is concerned with the sound system of a language and the rules governing the sound combinations.

  • MORPHOLOGY – This is concerned with the system governing the structure of words and the construction of word forms – subject verb agreement.
  • SYNTAX – This is concerned with the system governing the order and combination of words to form sentences and the relationships among the elements within a sentence grammar of the sentence.
  1. CONTENT OF LANGUAGE
  2. i) SEMANTICS – This is concerned with the system governing the meanings of words and sentences. They say what they don’t mean and mean what they don’t say.
  3. FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE
  4. i) PRAGMATICS – This is concerned with the system that combines phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics in functional and socially appropriate communication.

(B) A SPEECH DISORDER -communication-disorders

Speech is the ability to talk. Speech disorder is a deviation so far from the speech of other people that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication or causes the speaker or listener to be distressed; eg. A stammering person who wants to say Kofi says KO-KO-KO-FI-KOFI.

Speech disorders have to do with impairment of voice, phonology and fluency disorders.

  1. VOICE DISORDER:- This disorder has to do with the quality, loudness and pitch of voce according to the age of the speaker
  2. FLUENCY DISORDER:-This involves stammering or stuttering. The speech does not flow fluently.
  3. PHONOLOGICAL DISORDER:-This or also called articulation disorder eg. Instead of saying “brown bread”, the speaker says “blown blead”, teacher is pronounced cheacher etc.communication-disorders

IDENTIFICIATION / SIGNS / CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERS

 

  1. They may show signs of hearing impairment
  2. They are shy and socially withdrawn
  3. They may have low opinions of themselves
  4. They may have severe problems in academic performance
  5. Those with voice disorders would exhibit disorders such as speaking pitched voice.
  6. They find it difficult to use spoken language.
  7. They find it difficult to understand spoken language

CAUSES OF COMMUNICATION DISORDERScommunication-disorders

  1. GENETIC CAUSES
  2. Lack of ability to articulate speech sounds correctly may be due to brain damage to the nerves controlling the muscles which makes it impossible to articulate sounds.
  3. Delayed development may result from hearing impairment which is inherited.
  4. B) ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES
  5. Physical Abnormalities of the Oral Cavity such as cleft of the lip or palate.
  6. Misuse of voice such as excessive yelling during games.
  7. Lack of language stimulation that is non-availability of toys, pictures, etc.

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MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNICATION DISORDER

  1. Listen attentively when children speak and provide correct models of speech and language for children to imitate
  2. Avoid any form of ridicule
  3. You must listen attentively to the child and not say things for stutterers.
  4. Encourage them to listen to their own voices. By a tape recorder, let them listen to each other effectively.
  5. Allow the child to practice new skills. That is, give opportunities for students to practice new vocabularies.
  6. Include vocabulary instructions in all curriculum.
  7. Reword a message students do not understand.

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